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Aalbers, Jasper Abarbanell geb. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all slides. Sign in Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? You could not be signed in. Sign In Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution Sign in.

Purchase Subscription prices and ordering. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert. Advance article alerts. New issue alert. Palaeodemographic and palaeopathological aspects to the late medieval village population of Diepensee 95 Fig. Molars are also the largest teeth and therefore Caries burden cannot be effectively or accurately esti- have larger surface areas available for attack by mated based solely on the frequency of carious teeth.

A cariogenic processes. The first permanent molar better method for assessing the caries stress experi- already erupts at an age of around six years and it enced by each tooth type is conducted using the caries is usually the tooth most affected by caries since it and extraction index abbreviated as I-CE. Prevalence has been used for mastication and exposed to car- is established with the sum of the percentages of cari- iogenic surroundings and abrasion the longest.

Several differences are shown in a comparison of The figure calculated with the I-CE for the Diepens- data from other medieval populations from Mark ee series is The greatest caries stress on a Brandenburg Fig. The caries incidence sinks pro- are affected most often by caries at Diepensee. The The medieval inhabitants of the city Liebenwalde lowest value was found for the canine 6. In contrast, the village population from Treskow Caselitz indicates that the I-CE is an ap- Garz and the urban inhabitants from Ber- propriate index for population comparisons Fig.

When the results from Diepensee are compared of caries experience, especially the molar teeth. Periapical abscesses were identified similar caries stress for each individual tooth type on the first premolar and first molar of the left up- becomes apparent which also indicates a regularity per jaw Fig. Only the second and third mo- Abscesses and infections of the periodontal tissues lars in the Diepensee series exhibit a clearly lower usually lead to serious health problems.

Complica- caries stress. In all, the molars in all populations tions involve spread of the infection to surround- show the highest caries experience, which results ing tissues resulting in life threatening situations primarily from the reduced self cleaning ability in and possibly lethal consequences Alt et al. The prevalence of infections and abscess is have the least amount of caries.

A profound, large carious lesion often results in Table 6 lists the individual results attained from differ- the opening of the root canal, which can then be ent medieval skeletal series from Brandenburg. Results from the both pressure and pain. This fistula forming in- Diepensee series place it in the lowest range of caries flammatory condition at the tooth root was identi- experience.

A comparative study by Caselitz in fied in The Middle Ages show a slump in this Figure 17 shows a fistula near the left, lower first trend and only after AD is there a clear rise in molar of a year old woman from Burial There is no apparent difference between the diets consumed by rural and city inhabitants. Medieval nutri- There is a consensus in dental medicine that diet plays tion was dominated by grain foods and eaten primarily a decisive role in the genesis of caries and did so also in in the form of bread and gruel.

Nutritional variety was the past. The main cariogenic factor is that a large part significantly more limited than it is today and foods of the diet includes simple sugars capable of rapid oral such as vegetables hardly played a role in the diet. Diet pH depression with a long recovery time. People whose in rural settings was self supplied. Improved roads and subsistence depends primarily on plant foods, particu- extensive trade routes ensured regular access to luxury larly grains, exhibit a higher incidence of caries than goods such as exotic spices, rice, dates, figs, and raisins populations where the nutrition is comprised mainly of Behre Garz views the caries burden tion of animal proteins.

On the contrary, the village of found in the inhabitants of the village Treskow as typi- Tasdorf showed greater reliance upon a vegetable diet. The increased consumption of Tooth type Total sugary foods may have lead to the elevated caries stress. Nutritional differences between populations are not de- Incisor 1 3.

Carious lesions are also more seldom in the city population of Liebenwalde Molar 2 2. The question arises whether the cause in Molar 3 2. Because Total 3. Therefore, the low frequency of carious lesions mastication were recorded for each individual tooth ac- recorded in these populations might reflect the influ- cording to the amount of enamel present.

Five different ence of fish meat in the diet. Czarnetzki et al. Assessment of the average level of are difficult to assess Wahl However, it can be abrasion was conducted by multiplying a level with the asserted that the dental health of the medieval Diepens- number of times that particular level was recorded. The level of abrasion was scored in adult individu- Occlusal abrasion als and totalled teeth. Every adult dentition, rang- ing from adult to senile age class, was affected by abra- Throughout a life time and beginning shortly after sive tooth wear.

The average levels found are presented eruption of the teeth, the human dentition is subjected in Table 7. The abrasive quality of nutri- The anterior teeth are most affected by dental abrasion, tional components is responsible for most tooth wear. Dental abrasion for the The level of abrasion is decisive in revealing informa- whole of the Diepensee series is 3.

To paratively high result. The average level of abrasion what extent hard fibres are consumed as well as the found at Treskow was 3. The moderately high level of powder from milling stones or wood ash mixed in with abrasion indicates that the diet was comprised of hard the food both influence the level of wear incurred upon food stuffs that required a long masticatory period.

The the teeth Brothwell Tooth wear is also depen- nutritional components must have included a large por- dant on biological parameters such as enamel hardness tion of hard fibres with lots of abrasive particles, and Czarnetzki Different stages of horizontal wear therefore was probably mainly vegetable in nature.

Palaeodemographic and palaeopathological aspects to the late medieval village population of Diepensee 99 Age class adult matur senil Abrasion level 2. The main cereal products at Teltow were probably rye, barley, and oats Bohm Oats and barley in par- ticular both contain a high concentration of silicic acid and copious amounts of husks that are difficult to re- move by threshing Netolitzky The carbohydrate rich grains build the basis for the production of bread and gruel.

Bread was usually backed in large quantities in order to provide a week supply Greth This Fig. Diets that primarily incorporate less abrasive compo- nents like animal based products and refined flour without husks slow down the abrasion process teeth are exposed to. Increasing age is accompanied by a rise in the level of tooth wear Tab.

Heavy dental abrasion can lead to the opening of the Fig. The lower teeth of a year old man from Burial exhibit an irregular wear pattern. The pulp cavity of the right first molar is exposed which resulted in the formation of a periapical abscess Fig. The entire upper dentition of a year old man Burial has been worn down to the root. Because all of the pulp cavities are filled with secondary dentine the assump- tion follows that the attritional process was slow and progressive Fig.

The deciduous dentitions also showed signs of wear. Both incisors generally weaning was completed can be approximated by a displayed the most wear Fig. At what point with advancing age, particularly on the incisors. A years, and on the cheek teeth between the ages of closer examination reveals a clear pattern of wear that and years. At the age of four years the influence of is probably related to some handcraft.

This type of me- hard abrasive foods are clearly observable and were no chanical abrasion has been evidenced, for example, in doubt consumed some time earlier. The exact cause of these non-alimentary wear sis, a figure that is probably comparable to Diepensee. Rateischak et al. The presence of Lastly, the presence of dental abrasion in the form of calculus indicates poor dental hygiene and predisposes grooving resulting from activities not associated with periodontal disease.

Population of calculus with micro- eating on the dentitions from six skeletons in the Buri- organisms can cause heavy irritation of the gingivae, als , , , und deems mentioning. Because the structure of cal- culus is fragile and susceptible to damage it is often lost to some extent in historical skeletons already during ex- cavation and the actual original amount of calculus de- posits are difficult to assess Schultz For this rea- son only the general presence of calculus in each dentition was scored and recorded.

A total of All of the teeth belong- ing to the year old woman in Burial had supra- gingival calculus. The garland-like border of the calculus along the tooth root is clearly visible in Figure Con- siderable calculus deposits are seen on the right half of the dentition and the cheek teeth of the lower and upper Fig. Even year old woman Grave There was no evidence for the cause of this extreme case of calculus.

In contrast to caries for which a chemical process is responsible, periodontal disease is caused primarily by irritation: calculus and bacteria irritate the gingivae and catalyze an infection Teuber This results in destruction of the alveolar rim, which takes on a smooth or slightly wavy appearance Schultz The dentitions from the Diepensee population showed a prevalence of alveolar destruction characteristic of peri- odontal disease of One remarkable example of a late adult age senil woman with severe vertical bone Fig.

Evidence of nut r itional def iciency and stress markers Several deficiency disorders leave traces on bones that can be detected hundreds of years later Schultz Included here are vitamin deficiencies that cause rick- ets and scurvy. Deficiencies can have different origins, for example, inadequate supply, consumption of unfor- tified foods, intestinal malabsorption, impaired syn- thesis or increased demand.

A closer look shows that the role malnutrition plays is Fig. Deficiencies are ease Schultz A vicious cycle is initiated because more readily noticeable in children than adults be- infections cause deficiency disorders through blood loss cause they are still developing physically and mentally or intestinal abnormalities Grupe et al.

Cribra orbitalia Welcker first coined the term cribra orbitalia to describe the porous bone changes seen on the lamina externa of the orbital roof, a feature often noted in ear- ly populations. Cribra orbitalia can be viewed as a non- specific feature of malnutrition, whereby the causative Fig. The orbital roofs of 69 children in the age classes infans I and II were examined in the Diepensee skeletal mate- rial. Lesions considered to represent cribra orbitalia were diagnosed in 28 cases An indication of lesion severity was not made.

In the absence of differ- ential diagnostic methods the exact pathologic cause of the various forms observed, which range from large pore lesions Fig. In comparison to other medieval populations the prev- alence of cribra orbitalia at Diepensee A similarly low prevalence was detected in Altenerd- ing with There are however, no clear tendencial patterns in the prevalence of cribra orbitalia observable between the different populations on either a regional or chronological basis.

Zink Fig. Signs of defi- holes and reactive periosteal bone layers scattered bone find. Most cases of cribra orbitalia from Enamel hypoplasia the Diepensee series were diagnosed in children older than three years of age with prevalence peaking be- Enamel hypoplasias result from an irreversible inter- tween the ages of four to six years Tab. In addition to de- the dentitions examined only one clearly defined fur- fects related to local disturbances such as trauma or row was visible Fig.

Table 11 presents a comparison of information from Generalized disturbances result in the symmetrical ar- Diepensee with data recorded for other populations in rangement of hypoplasias on homologous tooth groups Brandenburg. They are usually viewed as unspecific indicators caused by infections and temporary nutri- Documentation from a number of historic populations tional deficiencies Schultz et al. Of these, 56 in- urban from Liebenwalde, Bernau and Berlin.

The low- dividuals None recorded and without an indication of whether the de- were observed on the deciduous dentition. Therefore, the actual prevalence cannot be accurately An average of 2. This comparison of rural populations Berlin, by contrast, represented important and densely shows that Diepensee in fact had the highest rate ob- populated cities in medieval Mark Brandenburg. The served. Based upon standard schematic illus- Even though Liebenwalde was lawfully considered a tration of dental development e.

Massler et al. The result from a de- velopmental standstill in rapidly growing long bones Most of the hypoplasias recorded for the Diepensee McHenry and are most often detected on the population were formed during the ages between two tibiae Schultz b. They are evidence for times of and three years. The frequency remains high up to an crises that the organism survived such as hunger, mal- age between four and five years and then sinks again nutrition, or disease.

No hypoplasias were formed during the first year of life or after the age of seven to eight years. As mentioned earlier research project by Felsch at the Free University see Child mortality. Several excerpts by the age of years. This period of increased risk of these results are presented here. In all, 44 tibiae from and physiological stress is no doubt reflected in the a total of children from burials in the age classes large prevalence of hypoplasias observed in this age infans I und II were available for radiographic exami- group.

The low number of hypoplasias exhibited in the nation, and of these 34 exhibited Harris lines. Bernau series indicates that children in this age brack- et were at lower risk for health hazards. The chances of surviving this critical vived times of physiological crises during developmen- phase were apparently better in the city. On the other tal years. The average stress burden seen varies decid- hand, urban children were more prone to contracting edly between the different populations.

The most Harris infectious diseases because of the densely inhabited lines formed in the children from Bernau 4. The greatest number of Tasdorf Faber et al. By contrast, the hypoplasias in children from Bernau was observed be- average number of Harris lines of 2 found per individ- tween the ages of three and five years.

A disruption in ual at Diepensee is clearly lower. An even lower number the mineralization process through infectious disease of Harris lines were detected in the children from Tres- was likely the cause here.

However, forty percent of the children in the age classes infans I and II in this popula- Harris lines tion died before reaching the age of three Tomiak The percent frequency was then assessed. Be- dren exhibited Harris lines also indicates that many cause a correlation with the prevalence of enamel hy- were successfully able to survive the critical phase in poplasia is frequently discussed e. The presumption of better living stan- Schultz , this is also presented see Fig.

Some Harris lines are formed already in the fi rst year Like enamel hypoplasias, an age at formation can be of life followed by a sharp rise in frequency with a determined for Harris lines as well. The examination maximum between the ages of two to three years. A rise in and determined the age of formation by reading mortality rate at the same time refer to Fig.

As men- aptation to hard work seems to be complete by the age tion earlier, the change to adult food during the of ten since Harris lines no longer are exhibited in the weaning period is probably the main causative factor. Mother were aware of the dangers associated with weaning and were advised to do so gradually. In the Unique cases beginning they were supposed to feed their children only soft, paste-like or pre-chewed foods such as The personal fates of people are also revealed in the bread dunked in honey water, oat gruel or beef soup skeletons.

A grave in the church interior contained a Shahar The frequency of Harris lines clearly skeleton that was found to be laid out in a peculiar posi- drops off as age progressed, although the number of tion Burial Unearthing of the grave revealed that enamel hypoplasias remained high. Apparently the the legs of an approximately 40 year old woman were bodily stresses children were subjected to continued, tightly flexed Fig.

Skeletons in flexed positions are however, these did not manifest themselves in devel- unusual for medieval Christian burials. Upon examina- opmental lags but as interruptions in the mineraliza- tion of the skeleton a pathologic lesion of the left prox- tion process of teeth, which may have been associated imal femur was diagnosed.

The head of the femur was with infectious diseases. The distribution of Harris completely missing, a condition caused by necrosis it- lines once again shows a small rise between the ages self probably resulting from an infectious disease Fig. The woman may have had severe pain causing her cal demands placed on these children following their to crouch together at the time of death and was subse- initiation into adult working life.

This transition took quently buried in that flexed position. As the of the proximal end Fig. A similar case was de- child grew older, the work burden increased. This type of defor- mity can be caused by a developmental disturbance during growth or due to a childhood injury that dam- aged the epiphysis. However, a heavily deformed me- dial condyle of the left femur and mid-thoracic verte- bral compression fracture both indicate that a Fig.

This was a custom often seen practiced at the Diepensee cemetery and is a certain degree of elasticity, however, when the limit associated with the superstition of the walking dead of flexibility is exceeded, bone failure results Kunter Jungklaus a. The impact of acute mechanical forces is the main cause of injury to bone that is seen on historical The lower extremities and displaced right humerus of skeletons.

The spectrum of possible mechanical dam- a child were found in a disturbed grave Burial The disorder is a congenital al. Bone injury and facture can also provide disruption affecting the growth in length of the long evidence for the presence of violent conflict in a past bones and belongs to a group of skeletal dysplasias population Claassen The bones are characteristically short but have a nor- In all, 2. This inherited were affected.

The skulls of two individuals have clear- disorder is very rare, and up to now, has not been re- ly identifiable weapon wounds that can be interpreted corded in archaeological material from Brandenburg. All forms of injury incurred upon bone are designated A scattered bone find in the grave pit of Burial as traumas.

Various types of fracture can result from a consisting of the calvarium of an adult male displayed myriad of forces applied to bone such as pressure, ten- numerous fine cuts centred around the forehead Fig. Each individual bone possesses The proximal half of the right humerus is considerably shortened.

The differen- cuts are visible Fig. They might be traces left by tial break pattern of bone seen in living or dead bone knife cuts since they are not deep and are rather short. An Porr However, whether they were induced an- attempted scalping does not appear likely because the temortem or perimortem cannot be determined Geld- cut marks are only present in the middle of the frontal hauer et al. Scattered bone Fig.

The endocranial surface of the frontal bone also exhib- its healing of the injuries that obviously penetrated through the skull bone. In addition, a small, bulging bone defect was found on the interior frontal bone sur- face Fig. It is more likely the result of an accident than from violence. The majority of traumatic lesions observed on the skel- etons of the people of Diepensee were probably caused through accidents. A fracture with marked shortening Fig. These types man scattered bone find in Grave Several large gnarled, Two individuals Burials and exhibited mul- healed bone defects are present on the right side of the tiple rib fractures.

In both cases each had broken two forehead just above the orbit. The large bones of the lower extremities are usually the most common loca- tion for fracture Hamilton Su m m a r y The fully documented cemetery find from Diepensee represents the first time for the state of Brandenburg that an late medieval skeletal series was found in its entirety. The osteological and palaeopathological ex- aminations yielded a substantial amount of data that were utilized primarily to promote the reconstruction of the living standards of the village population.

The Fig. Charac- teristic parameters of palaeodemographic analysis are the determination of age structure of a population, rate of infant mortality, and the mid-range life expectancy. The skeletal series from Diepensee shows a peak death rate during infant age as well as during both adult and matur age classes, which is typical for a normal prein- dustrial population Grupe et al.

In an examina- tion of mortality rate and sex distribution, women were shown to have died most often during early adult age and men in the late stage of the matur age class. The high mortality rate in young women is generally be- lieved to result from the increased burden they were subject to because of pregnancy and childbirth.

The markedly high number of juveniles found to have died is possible evidence for the existence of bubonic plague Fig. In light of the com- paratively high regional life expectancy of 30 years, there was ample evidence indicating that the living standards at medieval Diepensee were fairly good. The results of palaeopathological examinations give information to the disease burden of a population as well as providing evidence to better understand impor- tant aspects such as the nutritional situation and hy- gienic conditions.

Because carbohydrate rich plant foods like bread and other grain products are in Fig. The fracture site displays a typical healing cal- ee more likely subsisted on a diet composed of animal lus Fig. However, the level of dental abrasion observed, Bruchkanten gut zu erkennen Abb.

A gradual and progressive Interestingly, there was only one example of fracture in abrasion can counter the development of caries Rob- the lower extremities. Therefore, the medieval Diepensee diet was prob- Boenisch G.

Bohm E. Evidence for malnutrition and general physiological Siedlung und Agrarwesen. Berlin im Mittelalter. Ausstellungskatalog: Berlin: Nicolaische stress were comparatively seldom amongst the subadult Verlagsbuchhandlung. However, a high frequency of non-specific stress markers observed in small children indicates that this Broadbent B.

Holly Sr. Holly Jr. Staint Louis: The C. Mosby Comp. Markers such as Cribra or- bitalia, enamel hypoplasias, and Harris lines all show a Brothwell D. This age The Macroscopic Dental Pathology of some Earlier Human period was laden with risks for the children but is not populations. Brothwell D. Per- necessarily correlated with an increased mortality rate. Oxford: Oxford University Press. As a whole, the inhabitants of the medieval village of Diepensee in Buck H.

Mark Brandenburg appear to have enjoyed good living Die Gebisse. In: Mangeldorf G. Jahrhunderts in Brandenburg.

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This inherited were affected. The skulls of two individuals have clear- disorder is very rare, and up to now, has not been re- ly identifiable weapon wounds that can be interpreted corded in archaeological material from Brandenburg. All forms of injury incurred upon bone are designated A scattered bone find in the grave pit of Burial as traumas. Various types of fracture can result from a consisting of the calvarium of an adult male displayed myriad of forces applied to bone such as pressure, ten- numerous fine cuts centred around the forehead Fig.

Each individual bone possesses The proximal half of the right humerus is considerably shortened. The differen- cuts are visible Fig. They might be traces left by tial break pattern of bone seen in living or dead bone knife cuts since they are not deep and are rather short. An Porr However, whether they were induced an- attempted scalping does not appear likely because the temortem or perimortem cannot be determined Geld- cut marks are only present in the middle of the frontal hauer et al.

Scattered bone Fig. The endocranial surface of the frontal bone also exhib- its healing of the injuries that obviously penetrated through the skull bone. In addition, a small, bulging bone defect was found on the interior frontal bone sur- face Fig. It is more likely the result of an accident than from violence. The majority of traumatic lesions observed on the skel- etons of the people of Diepensee were probably caused through accidents.

A fracture with marked shortening Fig. These types man scattered bone find in Grave Several large gnarled, Two individuals Burials and exhibited mul- healed bone defects are present on the right side of the tiple rib fractures.

In both cases each had broken two forehead just above the orbit. The large bones of the lower extremities are usually the most common loca- tion for fracture Hamilton Su m m a r y The fully documented cemetery find from Diepensee represents the first time for the state of Brandenburg that an late medieval skeletal series was found in its entirety.

The osteological and palaeopathological ex- aminations yielded a substantial amount of data that were utilized primarily to promote the reconstruction of the living standards of the village population. The Fig. Charac- teristic parameters of palaeodemographic analysis are the determination of age structure of a population, rate of infant mortality, and the mid-range life expectancy.

The skeletal series from Diepensee shows a peak death rate during infant age as well as during both adult and matur age classes, which is typical for a normal prein- dustrial population Grupe et al. In an examina- tion of mortality rate and sex distribution, women were shown to have died most often during early adult age and men in the late stage of the matur age class.

The high mortality rate in young women is generally be- lieved to result from the increased burden they were subject to because of pregnancy and childbirth. The markedly high number of juveniles found to have died is possible evidence for the existence of bubonic plague Fig. In light of the com- paratively high regional life expectancy of 30 years, there was ample evidence indicating that the living standards at medieval Diepensee were fairly good.

The results of palaeopathological examinations give information to the disease burden of a population as well as providing evidence to better understand impor- tant aspects such as the nutritional situation and hy- gienic conditions. Because carbohydrate rich plant foods like bread and other grain products are in Fig. The fracture site displays a typical healing cal- ee more likely subsisted on a diet composed of animal lus Fig.

However, the level of dental abrasion observed, Bruchkanten gut zu erkennen Abb. A gradual and progressive Interestingly, there was only one example of fracture in abrasion can counter the development of caries Rob- the lower extremities. Therefore, the medieval Diepensee diet was prob- Boenisch G.

Bohm E. Evidence for malnutrition and general physiological Siedlung und Agrarwesen. Berlin im Mittelalter. Ausstellungskatalog: Berlin: Nicolaische stress were comparatively seldom amongst the subadult Verlagsbuchhandlung. However, a high frequency of non-specific stress markers observed in small children indicates that this Broadbent B.

Holly Sr. Holly Jr. Staint Louis: The C. Mosby Comp. Markers such as Cribra or- bitalia, enamel hypoplasias, and Harris lines all show a Brothwell D. This age The Macroscopic Dental Pathology of some Earlier Human period was laden with risks for the children but is not populations. Brothwell D.

Per- necessarily correlated with an increased mortality rate. Oxford: Oxford University Press. As a whole, the inhabitants of the medieval village of Diepensee in Buck H. Mark Brandenburg appear to have enjoyed good living Die Gebisse. In: Mangeldorf G. Jahrhunderts in Brandenburg. Greif- standards. Bibl iog r aphy Buck H.

History of Human Life Span and Mortility. Akademiai Kiado: Jahrhundert. Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Budapest. Grades Doctor medicinae dentariae Dr. Stuttgart: Thieme. Sections of this page. Accessibility help. Email or phone Password Forgotten account? See more of Bettingen - Eifel on Facebook.

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Euer PGR-Bettingen. Niemand entgangen ist wohl, dass wir nach 50 Jahren nunmehr Continue reading. See more. Bettingen - Eifel is feeling sad. Liebe Bettinger, insbesondere liebe Kinder: Nun ist es leider doch noch passiert. Zur Kenntnis:. Maximin" Bettingen 28 April. Lob am Sonntag am Am Bettingen - Eifel added an event. Rittersdorf, den Lob am Sonntag in der Pfarrei Bettingen. A fierce stroke of the brush that means the world? Blending inspirations from Paris and New York, this variety of expressive abstraction caught on in Switzerland in the s and developed into a richly diverse genre over The permanent exposition in the historical rooms of the former Klingental Dominican convent features original medieval sculptures from Basel Cathedral, a 17th-century model of the city, and the history of the convent itself.

In addition to contemporary exhibits, the Museum possesses numerous, valuable, historical preparations which have been restored using the latest techniques. They are now presented in new displays. Of special historical interest, is the skeleton prepared in by Andreas Fire-fighting equipment, ranging from medieval hand-operated spraying devices to modern oxygen inhalers. The Museum of Pharmacy exhibits one of the world's largest collections dedicated to the history of pharmacy.

Alchemistic laboratories, pharmacies, scientific instruments, ceramics, and many other highlights are shown in a medieval house. Our homes are an expression of the way we live, they shape our everyday routines and fundamentally affect our well-being.

From February , the Vitra Design Museum will present a major exhibition tracing the evolution of the contemporary private interior. Beginning with More than a hundred years, from around until the Impasse Ronsin in Paris was home to a warren of studios used by wide variety of artists with very different backgrounds and approaches.

This curious cul-de-sac hidden away in Montparnasse served as home and atelier to The Kunstmuseum Basel dedicates a focused exhibition to the oeuvre of Isa Genzken that turns the spotlight on the outstanding early work she created in the first decade of her career. It is a sign that denotes an unspecified currency, first encoded for computers in The artist places it, along with various terms of the global realty With her works, the Berlin-based multimedia artist Katja Aufleger born in Oldenburg seeks the simultaneity of possibilities to pose existential questions — sculptural and filmic, visual and auditory.

The seductive aesthetic of her works surprises with unexpected, Once a caterpillar has battled its way out of its egg, it eats as much as it can. It changes its appearance, grows and metamorphoses in order to ultimately emerge from its chrysalis as a beautiful butterfly and fly through the air. We illustrate this remarkable stage of Saber-toothed cats, Megaloceros giant elk , dwarf elephants and humans — the evolution of mammals is spectacular.

We showcase mammals and their ancestors using selected rare specimens. The climax of the exhibition is our famous mammoth. Mammals today account for Showcased here will be medieval works of art from churches in Switzerland and on the Upper Rhine. The impressive sculptures attesting to the veneration of saints are a reminder of how society was pervaded by the Christian faith and the church and of the influence they have The exhibition playfully reveals the manifold practices people rely on to recall specific moments in life, from birth to death, but also to forget about them.

Significant events in society are passed on by word of mouth, carved in stone, or, as the case may be, never disclosed. Gemeinsam gehen wir der Mythologie dieser Zeit nach, die Sammlung des Kunstmuseum Basel bildet dabei den Ausgangspunkt The exhibition presents the single-family house as a cultural-historical and architectural phenomenon of post-war modernism in the Basel area. The brain processes sensory impressions and information. Did you know that exercise and sport have a positive effect on the brain?

The exhibition shines the spotlight on indigenous birds, mammals and minerals. The exterior of birds and mammals reveals a lot about how they move, hunt and eat. Two habitats, the city and the mountains, show examples of how animals are able to adapt to a constantly changing Invertebrates do not have a bony skeleton. Their striking appearance is often shaped by an exoskeleton as is the case with insects, or a shell system as found in mussels and snails. However they can also be soft and mobile, like worms.

The exhibition offers an overview of the Original dissections of human body parts, organs and tissues. Christmas in wartime had a special meaning. Most family fathers and sons were at the front. Christmas trees were sent to The Museum's permanent collections present a selection of the Jean Tinguely's machine-sculptures, reliefs and drawings from all the periods of his career. Further, a great number of drawings and letter-drawings, documents, exhibition posters, catalogues and documentation as This is one of the largest collections of plaster casts of ancient sculptures.

Its complete reconstruction of the sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens is the only one of its kind. On a guided tour of the Vitra production facilities, visitors experience the various manufacturing steps required to make the Aluminium chair. Tours in English upon request. Since its origins in the 18th century, the Natural History Museum Basel has repeatedly gathered examples on its expeditions of animal species that have since disappeared from the natural world.

An annual group exhibition conceived in the context of the Regionale, a cross-border cooperation of 18 institutions in France, Germany, and Switzerland, with a focus on contemporary production by artists local to the three-country region around Basel.

The exhibition honors the renowned Berne-based auctioneer and collector Eberhard W. Kornfeld, who will give thirty-one etchings by Rembrandt to the museum. The works are shown together with another set of Rembrandts he donated to the museum in The Dutch were cosmopolitans even in the seventeenth century: the exhibition conveys the fascination that the Orient—seen through the prisms of works of art, objects of utility, and individuals—held for Rembrandt and his contemporaries. Jahrhunderts auf das einflussreiche Werk eines Protagonisten der abstrakten The name of Ludwig van Beethoven was a byword for classical music in the 19th century.

That being so, the fact that his compositions feature widely in mechanical musical instruments comes as no surprise. Seit The peak of the silk industry in the 19th century is followed by a rapid decline: the market for luxury goods collapses during the First and Second World Wars and silk ribbons are no longer fashionable. The ribbon manufacturers will find different solutions or go bankrupt. The permanent exhibition at the shipping museum is focusing on current means of transport, all rolled into one: water, rail, road and air, with the focus on shipping.

The perforated disc began its brief career in mechanical music in the s in Leipzig, This new simplified sound production system was cheaper to produce and allowed for a wider, and more topical music repertoire. Also Swiss companies produced disc music boxes for the world market. Musical instruments from five centuries are shown in both their musical and social contexts and grouped according to musical genres or to occasions on which specific instruments were played.

Visitors can also hear how the instruments sound and are given additional information We often hear that Swiss and Germans are similar. But there are also subtle differences, about which we can reflect and laugh. It is well known that the self-image differs from that of foreigners. This is the favourite source for many caricatures. The Cultural Affairs Nach einer umfassenden baulichen Sanierung und Neukonzeption der Dauerausstellung wird das selber Hand anlegen und In the wide space between the museum and the theatre of Augusta Raurica is a further attraction presented: the largest bronze model of a Roman city.

With a dimension of 4. The magnificent Kirschgarten House - built between and as the home and office of a Basle silk ribbon manufacturer - is one of Switzerland's principal museums of domestic life. Laid out on two floors, period rooms depict life during the eighteenth and nineteenth The changeable permanent exhibition at the Museum.

BL deals with life in its full splendour and takes visitors on a journey of discovery through the natural riches of the canton of Basel-Landschaft: A wealth of surprising natural paradises turns Basel into an ecologically very Since it was founded in , Basel's Jewish Museum has assembled a cultural-historical collection unique in Europe. In it celebrates its 50th anniversary with a display of noteworthy artifacts, such as textiles, ceremonial objects, everyday items, and a Torah arc from Unserer Feuerwehr wurde von der Verbandsgemeinde jegliche Hilfe bei Martinsveranstaltungen untersagt.

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Boat Trip Around Walensee II The Swiss Lake that Links 2 Cantons (St. Gallen \u0026 Glarus)

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